Foundation University Journal of Dentistry adheres to Vancouver style of referencing for publication. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and correct in-text citation. If massive corrections to the references are found to be necessary for the event that your manuscript is accepted, FUJD Editor reserves the right to rescind the accepted decision and reject the article.
- In the main text, tables, and figure legends, References should be indicated by superscripted number e.g. 1 according to the order of appearance in the text and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
- If you wish to cite two or more references together, place a comma between the numbers, e.g. 1, 2
- If you wish to cite a series of consecutive references use a dash, e.g. 2-5
- References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in the text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper.
- In the reference list, Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) for listing the references.
- References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
- Manuscripts accepted for publication may be cited and should include the manuscript’s DOI, if known.
- Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
- Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references.
- Vancouver Style does not use the full journal name, only the commonly used abbreviation. Journal title abbreviations should be those used by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. If you are uncertain about the correct abbreviation for a journal-title, please search for the journal at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog.
- If more than 1 author: give all authors' names and separate each by a comma and space.
- For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add 'et al.'
- Enter author's surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop).
- Book title, chapter, section title, and article – capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, and acronyms.
- Presented papers, unless they are subsequently published in proceedings or peer-reviewed journals, may not be cited as references.
- org may not be cited as a reference.
- For most manuscripts, authors should limit references to materials published in peer-reviewed professional journals.
- Also, authors should verify all references against the original documents.
- The reference list is a numbered list and should be single-spaced with a one-line space between each entry.
Format and examples of Vancouver style references are given below:
1. Articles in Journals
Journal articles can be accessed in three different ways: (1) from the print (paper) copy; (2) from the journal’s website; or (3) from an online article database like Medline. You will cite the article differently depending on how you accessed it
- Journal Article in Print:
Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of article. Title of journal, abbreviated. Year of Publication;Volume Number(Issue Number):Page Numbers.
Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Azithromycin as an adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis: 12-months randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35(8):696-704.
- Journal Article from a Website:
Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of article. Title of journal, abbreviated [Internet]. Year of Publication [cited YYYY Mon DD];Volume Number(Issue Number):Page Numbers. Available from: URL
Tasdemir T, Yesilyurt C, Ceyhanli KT, Celik D, Er K. Evaluation of apical filling after root canal filling by 2 different techniques. J Can Dent Assoc [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2009 Jun 14];75(3):[about 5pp.]. Available from: http://www.cda-adc.ca/jcda/vol-75/issue-3/201.html
- Journal Article from an Online Database:
Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of article. Title of journal, abbreviated [Internet]. Year of Publication [cited YYYY Mon DD];Volume Number(Issue Number):Page Numbers. Available from, name of online database: URL
Erasmus S, Luiters S, Brijlal P. Oral hygiene and dental student’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour in managing HIV/AIDS patients. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2009 Jun 16];3(4):213-7. Available from Medline: http://cclsw2.vcc.ca:2048/login?url=http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cmedm&AN=16451310&site=ehost-live
If the URL of an article is long, go to www.tinyurl.com Create a working link to a website that is shorter.
Monajem S. Integration of oral health into primary health care: the role of dental hygienists and the WHO stewardship. Int J Dent Hyg [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2009 Jun 21];4(1): 47-52. Available from CINAHL with Full Text: http://tinyurl.com/kudbxw
- Journal Article from a Website with DOI:
Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of article. Title of journal, abbreviated [Internet]. Year of Publication [cited YYYY Mon DD];Volume Number(Issue Number):Page Numbers. Available from: URL DOI
Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2013 Feb 19];40(12):2872-8. Available from: http://ajs.sagepub.com/ content/40/12/2872 DOI: 10.1177/0363546512458223
- Book in Print
Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, editor(s), if any. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Fauci AS, Mason J. Concepts in dental public health. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
Dionne RA, Phero JC, Becker DE, editors. Management of pain and anxiety in the dental office. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2002.
Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2008.
- Chapter in an edited book
Format: Author AA, Author BB. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. [Page numbers of Chapter].
Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel JR, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.
- Chapter in an edited electronic book
Format: Author AA, Author BB. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book [Internet]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY Mon DD]. p. [page or chapter number/s]. Available from: URL DOI [if available]
Halpen-Felsher BL, Morrell HE. Preventing and reducing tobacco use. In: Berlan ED, Bravender T, editors. Adolescent medicine today: a guide to caring for the adolescent patient [Internet]. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2012 [cited 2012 Nov 3]. Chapter 18. Available from: http://www.worldscientific.com/ DOI/10.1142/9789814324496_0018
- Government and other reports
Format: Author AA, Author BB. Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Total number of pages. Report No.:
Rowe IL, Carson NE. Medical manpower in Victoria. East Bentleigh (AU): Monash University, Department of Community Practice; 1981. 35 p. Report No.: 4.
3. Dictionaries and encyclopedias
- Article from online reference work
Format: Title of encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of article; [updated YYYY Mon DD; cited YYYY Mon DD]; [# of pages/screens]. Available from: URL
A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M., Inc.; c2005. Ear barotrauma; [updated 2006 Oct 20; cited 2006 Nov 16]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001064.htm
- Article from electronic drug guide
Format: Title of work [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher/Website; year. Name of drug: [revision/review date; cited YYY Mon DD]; [# of pages/screens]. Available from: URL
AHFS consumer medication information [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc.; ©2008. Protriptyline: [revised 2007 Aug 1; reviewed 2007 Aug 1; cited 2008 Oct 2]; [about 5 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo /meds/a604025.html
4. Audiovisual media
- Video file e.g. Web streaming video
Format: Author A. Title [format]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication [date it was viewed]. Available from: URL
Silverstein O. Mothers and sons: the crucial connection [web streaming video]. Hanover (USA): Microtraining Associates; 2005 [cited 2010 May 27]. Available from: http://ctiv.alexanderstreet. com/View/536289
5. From the Internet
- Webpage: Homepage
Format: Author/organization’s name. Title of the page [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; Date or year of publication [updated yr. month day; cited yr. month day]. Available from: URL
Diabetes Australia. Diabetes globally [Internet]. Canberra ACT: Diabetes Australia; 2012 [updated 2012 June 15; cited 2012 Nov 5]. Available from: http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/en/ Understanding-Diabetes/DiabetesGlobally/
- Part of Website
Format: Title of the homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; Date or year of publication. Title of specific page/part; Date of publication of part [Date cited of part]; [location or pagination of part]. Available from: URL
Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Barton ACT: AMA; c1995-2012. Junior doctors and medical students call for urgent solution to medical training crisis; 2012 Oct 22 [cited 2012 Nov 5]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ama.com.au/media/junior-doctors -and-medical-students-call-urgentsolution-medical-training-crisis
- Image from web
Format: Author or organization. Title [image on Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; date of publication [date cited]. Available from: URL
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Shingles on the face. [image on Internet]. 2011 [updated 2011 Jan 10; cited 2012 Nov 6]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/shingles/about/photos.html