To Assess the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Chamomile on 5-Fluorouracil Induced Oral Ulcers in Rabbits

  • Zobia Nissa Memon Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry & Allied Sciences, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Hassan Shahid Professor and Head, Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry & Allied Sciences, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • Syed Ali Danish Kazmi PhD Scholar, Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Pakistan
  • Ambreen Fatima Lecturer, Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Bhitai Dental & Medical College, Mirpurkhas, Pakistan
  • Farhat Jehan Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Bhitai Dental & Medical College, Mirpurkhas, Pakistan
  • Syed Zafar Abbas Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, Dow International Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
Keywords: 5-Fluorouracil, Chamomile, Chemotherapy, Oral Mucositis


Objective: The present study intended to find out the anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile on the oral
mucosa of 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced oral mucositis in rabbits by histopathological analysis.

Materials and Methods: The present Experimental interventional study was carried out at the Animal House, Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam. A sample of 18 rabbits was selected by convenient/purposive sampling according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After induction of 5-FU–mucositis (60 mg/kg 5-FU), the animals were divided into three groups; Group A (n=6): Control–receive 0.9% normal saline, Group B (n=6): 5-FU 60 mg/kg body weight and Group C (n=6): 5-FU induced oral ulcers + Chamomile. At the end of the experiment, each rabbit was deeply anaesthetized by chloroform. A cotton swab was soaked in chamomile, and applied on the oral ulcer areas, topically 2 times daily. Oral Mucositis Scoring System (OMSS) and grading of Liver histological injury were noted. Tissue samples were fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin and processed for H & E stains. Data were analyzed statistically for mean± SD and frequency and % by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, version 22.0.

Results: The mean ± SD of body weight in groups A, B, and C was noted as 530.83±15.30, 362.5±15.41 and 476.66±21.60 grams respectively (p=0.0001). The OMSS shows the control group A- animals were in grade 0, and B- grade 5 (which means virtual complete ulceration of oral mucosa) shows grade 3 and 4 injuries. The chamomile-treated experimental group C show mild and moderate injury compared to 5 FU-treated group B which shows severe injury in six rabbits (p=0.0001). Histological examination shows normal oral mucosa with intact surface epithelium in group A. While group B shows severe tissue injury, however, this was found low in group C (chamomile) treated animals.

Conclusion: Based on the evidence-based findings of the present study, it is concluded that chamomile decreases the 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis. Oral mucositis score and histological examination showed that chamomile was effective in healing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis ulcers.