Self-Criticism, Attribution Style, Hope, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents
Background. Mental health problems are most commonly underreported or kept undiagnosed in
the developing countries. Manifestation of such issues during adolescence could result in long-term
adverse consequences. Thus, present study attempted to explore predictive role of self-criticism,
attribution style, and hope in depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Method. A sample of 290 students (145 male & 145 female; aged 11-23 years) was recruited from
different schools and colleges by using convenient sampling technique. The Forms of
Self-Criticizing/ Self-reassuring Scale (FSCRS) (Gilbert et al., 2004), The Measure of
Attributional Style (Kwon & Whisman, 1992), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans et al.,
2007), and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) were used to measure
self-criticism, attribution style, hope, and depressive symptoms.
Findings. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between self-criticism and
depression while significant negative association was found between depression and hope.
Furthermore, self-criticism and hope significantly predicted depressive symptoms in adolescents.
Comparison of family systems showed significant differences on hated-self, attribution style, hope,
and depressive symptoms. Results revealed that individuals belonging to joint family system
experience more hated-self, depressive symptoms, and attribute to internal causes while
individuals belonging to nuclear family system experience more hope and attribute to external
Conclusion. The study findings highlight the role of self-criticism, attribution style, hope, and
depressive symptoms in adolescents. Thus, present study may also help in evaluating and
eliminating risks associated with depressive symptoms. Teachers/parents and caregivers working
with adolescents may also benefit from the findings of the research. Implications of the findings are