Who’s the Real Terrorist: Stigmatizing Labels and the Changes in Attitude Towards the Labelling Country among Pakistani Youth in Foreign Countries

Keywords: negative labels, changes in attitudes, consequent actions, multiple grounded theory


Objectives. The primary objective of the present study was to identify various negative labels
used against Pakistani Muslim immigrants in foreign countries by the natives of those countries
and the changes that occurred in the attitudes of the labelled victims due to those labels.
Additionally, the research also aims to investigate the consequent actions that the labelled victims
performed as a result of those negative labels and extending the already established labelling
theory even further.
Method. The final study sample comprised of eighteen Pakistani Muslim immigrants gathered
before saturation point, using a theoretical sampling technique. A multiple grounded theory
method was selected based on the objective of adding newer information to an already developed
theory. A semi-structured interview protocol was used as the main tool for data collection which
was completed in four phases, each phase consisting of five interviews with three in the last. A
three-step coding including open, axial and selective coding, was used on transcribed data which
was transformed into categories, themes and sub-themes using a thematic analysis method.
Results. The findings of the study included three main categories including the labels used,
changes in attitudes and the consequent actions due to labelling; along with their respective set of
themes and sub-themes. Additionally, the findings did proposed possible addition of newer
perspective in the labelling theory.
Conclusion. This study not only achieved its study objectives but also highlighted an important
prevalent issue of terrorist labelling against Pakistani Muslim immigrants in foreign countries.
The study also successfully suggested newer areas for future researchers to conduct studies and
further expand on the labelling theory.


Download data is not yet available.