Development and Validation of Gender Role Strain for Women
Our society expects specific behaviors, and performance from women associated with their gender. Sometimes to act upon and to fulfil these expectations becomes the cause of pressure and strain in a person. The purpose of present research is to develop and validate an indigenous scale of Gender Role Strain for women (GRSS-W). To accomplish this aim, a three phased study was conducted. To identify the phenomenology of gender role strain, literature was reviewed, semi structured interviews with clinical psychologists and psychiatrist (N=4) were carried out and a focus group (N=7) was conducted with women to generate inclusive list of items in phase I. Content validity of GRSS-W was established through experts’ ratings (N=10). After piloting (N=35) of GRSS-W, factor analysis was conducted on a sample of 399 women for construct validity and 22 items were retained in phase II. The results of factor analysis revealed three emerging factors categorized as Pressures of Marital life (α = .88), Familial and Social Pressures (α = .84), and Workplace pressures (α = .77). The overall scale reliability was r= .89. Psychometric properties of GRSS-W were established (N=100) in Phase III. Convergent validity of GRSS-W was r= .71 with Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie, & Eisler, 1992). Discriminant validity of GRSS-W was measured by Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), r= -.27, p <.01. GRSS-W is a reliable and valid tool for evaluating role strain among women in Pakistani traditional background.
Keywords: Gender Role Strain, Pressures of Marital life, Familial and Social Pressures, Workplace pressures