Development and Validation of Boarding School Climate Scale (BSCS)

  • Sohail Mehmood Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Islamabad
  • Nazia Iqbal Iqbal International Islamic University Islamabad
  • Muhammad Tahir Khalily International Islamic University Islamabad
Keywords: Boarding School Climate Scale, Boarding School Climate, Students' Perception of Boarding School Climate


Background. Boarding schools not only provide boarders with education but also focussed to groom
the students intellectually, socially, and emotionally. The term boarding school climate is considered to
have unique features that appear to significantly differ from the climate of day school. As compared to
the day schools, boarding institutes provide residential settings, having a highly structured and
organized daily routine, and ample opportunities for learning and engaging in co-curricular activities.
Numerous scales were developed to evaluate the day school climate; however, studies aiming to explore
and assess the boarding school climate are sparse.
Method. The Boarding School Climate Scale (BSCS), comprises of 68 items, it was developed using
the triangulation technique; we employed an open-ended questionnaire, followed by focus group
discussions with current boarding students, and literature review. The scale was administered on a
sample of participants drawn from 7 public and private-sector boarding schools and colleges of
Pakistan. We used the purposive sampling technique (N=738, amongst these, there were 635 males, 103
female students). Only those included in the study, who gave written informed consent to participate in
the study. The mean age of students was 15.4 years with the age range of 12 years to 19 years old (SD
1.46); the participants were students of grade 6 to grade 12.
Results. The findings of Exploratory Factor Analysis showed a total of eight factors, these named as;
Pastoral Care, Behavioral Problems, Academic & Civic Learning, Discipline Safety & Rules, Resource
Support, Physical Environment, Leadership, and Relationships. The Convergent Validity of the
Boarding School Climate Scale (BSCS) showed a significant correlation with the 9-Item Georgia Brief
School Climate Inventory (La Salle, McIntosh, & Eliason, 2016) (GaBSCI) (r=.73, p <.01) and its
factors highlighting significant indices of convergent validity with an existing school climate measure.
Conclusion. The development of indigenous BSCS is a significant contribution to measuring the
boarding school climate in Pakistan. The instrument can assist the boarding school administration to
gain an insight into students' perception of the boarding school climate and its various dimensions.


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