Export Competence of Cultural Goods: A Structural Gravity Analysis of the BRICS Trade

  • Amjad Masood Business Studies Department, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Shujahat Haider Hashmi Business Studies Department, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Imran Nazir Business Studies Department, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Basharat Khan Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
Keywords: Creative industries, Cultural exports, BRICS, Gravity, PPML


The BRICS economies contribute a substantial portion of global trade.
However, the share of cultural export in their total exports has been declining
over the past two decades. In this context, the current study examines cultural
exports of BRICS compared to their aggregate exports using structural gravity
model. For empirical estimation, we apply Poisson Pseudo-Maximum
Likelihood High Dimensional Fixed Effects (PPMLHDFE) estimator for annual
bilateral exports data. The results show that, as compared to non-cultural
aggregate exports, exports of creative industries are more sensitive to
geographical distance between countries. Nevertheless, positive effect of the
similarity between trading partners in terms of language commonality, colonial
relationship and shared border is more pronounced in case of cultural exports.
Furthermore, we find that while the regional trade agreements promote exports
in general, they remain inconsequential in case of cultural exports of BRICS.
Additionally, the study uses cultural exports as a proxy for cultural proximity
and finds that bilateral cultural exports facilitate the exports of non-cultural