Institutional Factors that Influence Social Upgrading in Global Value Chains in the Soccer Ball Industry

  • Muhammad Danish PhD Student IQRA University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Amira Khattak Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Social upgrading, social, private and public governance, ; institutions, global value chains, soccer ball industry, Sialkot, Pakistan


This research examines how institutional factors (public, private and social governance) Influence social upgrading in supplier firms in global value chains (GVCs) in the soccer ball industry of Pakistan. Using primary multi-source data, we found that institutional factors in GVCs play a critical role in the social upgrading of the industry. Furthermore, we revealed that social upgrading is an outcome of an interplay between public, private and social governance in GVCs.