A Spatial panel Analysis of Carbon Emission and Food security
This study examines the impact of co2emission on food security proxied by food supply by spatial econometrics models from 2000 to 2014 globally. We also comprised the socioeconomic variables in the model for the bias of variables. The global Moran's I and local spatial autocorrelation technique used for spatial dependence, and they suggested the spatial dependence exist in the cross-sectional units. Therefore, we used the spatial panel model to explore the spatial spillover effect of co2emisson on food supply. The chosen spatial panel Durbin model results showed that the co2emission, population growth, and unemployment rate have negatively decreased the given country's food supply level and its neighbour countries. Simultaneously, the GDP and arable land are beneficial for the given country and its adjacent countries. Moreover, the real coefficient, the direct, indirect (spillover), and the total effects of the carbon emission indicated that the carbon emissions decrease the level of food security in both of this country and its nearest neighbouring countries. Therefore, the carbon emissions level needs to be reduced to improve food production (in quality and quantity) and increase the food supply level.